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BACK PAIN

Back pain are not due to some underlying diseases. It may be due to working out too much or lifting too much, prolonged sitting and lying down, sleeping in an uncomfortable position or wearing a poorly fitting backpack.

It can also result from injury, activity and some medical conditions. People of any age, can have back pain for different reasons. As people grow older, the chance of developing lower back pain increases, due to factors such as previous occupation and degenerative disk disease.

Lower back pain may be linked to the lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdominal and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area.

Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.


Causes

Problems with the spine such as osteoporosis can lead to back pain.

The human back is composed of a complex structure of muscles, ligaments, tendons, disks, and bones, which work together to support the body and enable us to move around.

The segments of the spine are cushioned with cartilage-like pads called disks.

Problems with any of these components can lead to back pain. In some cases of back pain, its cause remains unclear.

Damage can result from strain, medical conditions, and poor posture, among others.

Strain

Back pain commonly comes from strain, tension, or injury.


Frequent causes of back pain are:

a)strained muscles or ligaments

b)a muscle spasm

c)muscle tension

d)damaged disks

e)injuries, fractures, or falls

Activities that can lead to strains or spasms include:

1)lifting something improperly

2)lifting something that is too heavy

3)making an abrupt and awkward movement


Structural problems


A number of structural problems may also result in back pain.


Ruptured disks: Each vertebra in the spine is cushioned by disks. If the disk ruptures there will be more pressure on a nerve, resulting in back pain.


Bulging disks: In much the same way as ruptured disks, a bulging disk can result in more pressure on a nerve.


Sciatica: A sharp and shooting pain travels through the buttock and down the back of the leg, caused by a bulging or herniated disk pressing on a nerve.


Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can cause problems with the joints in the hips, lower back, and other places. In some cases, the space around the spinal cord narrows. This is known as spinal stenosis.


Abnormal curvature of the spine: If the spine curves in an unusual way, back pain can result. An example is scoliosis, in which the spine curves to the side.


Osteoporosis: Bones, including the vertebrae of the spine, become brittle and porous, making compression fractures more likely.


Kidney problems: Kidney stones or kidney infection can cause back pain.


Movement and posture:

Back pain can also result from some everyday activities or poor posture.


Examples include:

Adopting a very hunched sitting position when using computers can result in increased back and shoulder problems


Risk factors

The following factors are linked to a higher risk of developing low back pain:

a) occupational activities

b) pregnancy

c) a sedentary lifestyle

d)poor physical fitness

e) older age

f)obesity and excess weight

g)smoking

h)strenuous physical exercise or work, especially if done incorrectly

I)genetic factors

j)medical conditions, such as arthritis and cancer.

Lower back pain also tends to be more common in women than in men, possibly due to hormonal factors. Stress, anxiety, and mood disorders have also been linked to back pain.

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