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ARTHRITIS

Updated: Sep 15, 2019

What is arthritis?

When the joints become inflammated it is called ARTHRITIS.It is the swelling and tenderness of joints. The main symptoms are joint pain, swelling and stiffness which become worse with age. The main two types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there's too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.

Arthritis is usually seen in adults between the age of 55-60. But nowadays it is also seen in children, teenagers and younger adults. Arthritis is more common in women after menopause and who are overweight. But it is also seen in men.

What are the symptoms of arthritis?

The most common symptoms of arthritis are swelling, stiffness and joint pain.Mobility also decreases and there will be redness on the skin around the joint. In most cases symptoms are worse in the morning.

There is feeling of tiredness in case of Rheumatoid Arthritis or a loss of appetite due to the inflammation and pain. You may also become anemic or you might have a slight fever due to pain.If you do not take care timely severe RA can cause joint deformity.


How is arthritis diagnosed?

Extracting and analyzing inflammation levels in your blood and joint fluids can help your doctor determine what kind of arthritis you have. Blood tests that check for specific types of antibodies like anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide), RF (rheumatoid factor), and ANA (antinuclear antibody)are also common diagnostic tests.

Doctors commonly use imaging scans such as X-rayMRI, and CT scans to produce an image of your bones and cartilage.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there's too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.


What are the common ty of treatments for arthritis?


Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.


Different Types of arthritis:-

a) Ankylosing spondylitis

b) Gout

c)Joint infections

d) Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

e) Osteoarthritis

f) Psoriatic arthritis

g) Reactive arthritis

h) Rheumatoid arthritis

i) Septic arthritis

j) Thumb arthritis


Symptoms of arthritis:-

The most common signs and symptoms of arthritis involve the joints. Depending on the type of arthritis you have, your signs and symptoms may include:

• Pain

• Stiffness

• Swelling

• Redness

• Decreased range of motion


The two main types of arthritis — osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis — damage joints in different ways.


Osteoarthritis:-

The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis involves wear-and-tear damage to your joint's cartilage — the hard, slick coating on the ends of bones where they form a joint. Cartilage cushions the ends of the bones and allows nearly frictionless joint motion, but enough damage can result in bone grinding directly on bone, which causes pain and restricts movement. This wear and tear can occur over many years, or it can be hastened by a joint injury or infection.

Osteoarthritis also affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bones and deterioration of the connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and hold the joint together. It also causes inflammation of the joint lining.


Rheumatoid arthritis:-

In rheumatoid arthritis, the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, a tough membrane that covers all the joint parts. This lining (synovial membrane) becomes inflamed and swollen. The disease process can eventually destroy cartilage and bone within the joint.


Risk factors:-

Risk factors for arthritis include:

• Family history. Both types of arthritis are found to be genetic. But others can also develop.

• Age. It has been seen that osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout increases with age.

• Your sex.Usually Women are more likely to develop Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, while gout, another type of arthritis, are common in men.

• Previous joint injury. People who have injured a joint, perhaps while playing a sport, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint.

• Obesity. Being overweight puts stress on joints, particularly your knees, hips and spine. People who are obese have a higher risk of developing arthritis.


Complications:-

Severe arthritis In some cases, joints may become twisted and deformed.




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